|Hospital Ship MV Wilhelm Gustloff|
|Refugee Ship MV Goya|
|Refugee Ship MV Steuben|
On February 9 1945, the German luxury passenger liner MV Steuben sailed from Pillau in the bay of Danzig for Swinemünde. East Prussian refugees headed west, away from the city of Königsberg and ahead of the Soviet Red Army's advance into the Baltic states and East Prussia. The Steuben was in the fleet of ships sent for the purpose. On board were 2,800 wounded soldiers, 800 civilian refugees and 270 navy medical personnel. Just after midnight, Captain Alexander Marinesko launched two torpedoes from his Soviet submarine S-13. Between three and four thousand people died in the sinking. About 300 survivors were saved by torpedo boat T-196 and brought to Kolberg. Soviet Captain Alexander Marinesko was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously, in May 1990. Images: Public domain.